Human resource management and total quality management have been recognized as the training approaches that can be well adopted to achieve company’s goals and objectives. When practitioners have been attracted to applying HR practices more objectively, the study on literature reveals that human resource management and total quality management are being closely connected to one another. Formerly, organizations carried viewpoints on quality based on production-oriented perspective , but, assessing current literature shows that researches results highlight the quality of being important for human resource management in achieving quality objectives. Leadership, customer orientation, and culture are soft aspects or dimensions provided by TQM, as it has been depicted by many authors , were mentioned as main parameters bringing improvements in organizational performance.
In the literature section of this paper, it has been more directly explained that how the human resource management ought to be designed and adapted for the purpose of effective implementation of total quality management system. This HRM must show reforms in terms of empowerment of employees and the way managers devise policies and behave. The well coordination between TQM and HRM should be provided, and then complementary role of each system is played by the other one. Although, there are some difference between the needs and influence of each, but, there are also some likenesses and valuable contributions.
The current context provides OM researchers with the situation in which they can try new ideas and methods to further explore the relation between TQM and HRM. First, the model and framework developed in the literature review section as the analytical structure of TQM and HRM. The review carried out studies concentrating on HRM practices, and most of papers highlighted the importance of HR within a TQM process. Moreover, the most valuable asset that any organization owns is with their people, thus the employees management and their satisfaction regarding to training, salary, and promotion are crucial factors that influence the level of quality products and services produced and offered by an organization. By assessing the literature, it has been detected that many authors suggest HRM practices should be followed according to the basic ideas on which TQM system is based. Nevertheless, this context is relating to the study of case studies mainly. These studies and their conclusions have been the starting point for our research which is intended to improve the results and develop the mentioned theory. Therefore, we have served a literature-based model as a useful result that considers most significant HRM practices, which leads the way for employees and workforces to maintain TQM. The model also helps advance the understanding of relationship between TQM and HRM using a methodology that contemplates all statistical HRM practices’ results as a set, not separately. Findings of this study confirm that the option of running a TQM program should be accompanied by following HRM practices simultaneously within the organization, where these practices consist of general employee empowerment, teamwork, training and development and hiring, appraisal and compensation practices that link employees with the quality management system practices.
All physical and mental energies devoted to improve TQM process, regardless of success or failure as its results, make the corporate culture change. Such aspects like participation, taking organizational relationship on trust, and more committed efforts to achieve long-term objectives bring about a favorable organizational climate (Lawler, 1994). Thus, TQM is not a constructive process for any organization if managers decide to go through it separately from HRM practices. The long-term commitment made by all employees is strongly necessitated where a successful TQM involves all organizational members working as a team . In conclusion, the information discovered by our study and previous literature are connected and united. Long-term objectives would not be achieved, unless top managers decide on potential actions on pooling and using the firm’s resources all. The human resource should be managed to support company business strategies. Personnel practices develop corporate and business level cultures that may offer a help with sustaining TQM.
Human recourses including labors, clerks, technicians, and managers can keep TQM in a right position within the enterprise. So the key role is performed by human resource department in an organization’s TQM effort. For HR department, the first practical implication is to be the quality department itself. The starting point for running TQM is within HR internal operations, and then, human recourse manager should design HRM practices for the entire organization.
Five subjects and ideas come out when considering quality-oriented HR practices’ differences with traditional HR practices: (1) the concentration on the organization, instead of focus on the job; (2) Approval and assistance for teamworks and group performances, rather than individual performance; (3) holding the belief that everyone is equal and should have equal rights, rather than glass ceiling and hierarchy; (4) gradual changes, instead of being steady; (5) involvement and participation, rather than commanding and conrrol.
Aformentioned five merits of quality-oriented HR practices represent drawbacks of taking traditional HR practices. We believe that HR departments are provided by an opportunity arises as they can become more key determinants if they change the traditional practice methods they operate. Althogh conducting TQM necessitates to take workers temporarily from their duties, but the pursuit of tolal quality management can bring far-reaching changes in traditional HR practices.
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